When an object is turned to right or left, so that the lines do not run to the
center of vision, then the center of vision is not their vanishing point and the
object is said to be in angular perspective.

When an object, such as a cube, is tilted or turned from the horizontal it
is said to be in the oblique perspective.

Take a circle for an illustration. Draw a horizontal line through its center,
then a line at right angles. Where they intersect place a point of sight. Should
a head be placed directly in the center of this circle the center of the face
would correspond to the root of the nose, on a line level with the lower
border of the eyes. The horizontal line is called the horizon and is at eye
level at the height of the eye. The features will parallel the horizontal line.

Fashion Design Drawing - Figure Drawing The Skull 17.jpg

If the head remains in the same position and the observer steps to one side,
the side of the head comes within the range of vision and the relative posi-
tions of the head and features are perspectively changed, but not the pro-
portions. The distance away is the same.

Looking directly toward the corner of a head at close range, it would be
necessary to change the point of sight. The lines that were parallel with the
horizon are no longer parallel, but drop or rise to meet the horizon at some
point to form vanishing points.

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Unless a head is at eye level it must necessarily be in perspective. When
a head is above the spectator, obviously he is looking up. Not only is the
head in perspective, but every feature of the face; eyes, nose, mouth, ears.
Like the barnacles on the hull of a ship, the features follow the lift. In the
same manner they follow the upward trend, or its reverse. Everything to
that is secondary. The features must travel with the mass of the head.

Perspective must have some concrete shape, form or mass as a basis. A
cube or a head seen directly in front will be bordered by parallel lines; two
vertical and two horizontal. These lines do not retreat, and therefore, in
appearance remain parallel. As soon however, as they are placed so that
they are seen from beneath, on top or from either side, they appear to con-
verge. This convergence causes the further side of the object to appear
smaller than the nearer side.

The rules are:

First - Retreating lines whether above or below the eye tend toward
the level of the eye.

Second - Parallel retreating lines meet at the level of the eye. The point
where parallel retreating lines meet is called the vanishing point.

As objects retire or recede they appear smaller. It is the first rule of per-
spective - on this, the science of perspective is built.

Fashion Drawing Sections

Part-1 Part-2 Part-3 Part-4 Part-5