For solid line work, that is, where masses of black (or colour) are used, the brush may be used instead of the pen, but here again directness and simplicity is the keynote of success. The ink must be evenly applied, to a uniform depth or tone. Unlike half-tone work, every part of a line drawing, to reproduce, must be of the same tone; anything which is below a certain depth probably will not reproduce at all.

Conte crayon and charcoal drawings are usually reproduced by the half-tone process; but it is possible for a line block to be made from a good sharp Conte drawing, with a saving in cost. A useful style can be obtained by using Conte on a very rough board so that where the crayon catches the raised surface a stippled effect is created, similar to dry brush work. An example of a line reproduction of this sort is seen in Fig. 38.


A good method of depicting tones in a line drawing is by the use of what are termed mechanical screens. In this process the tone is applied to the block by the block-makers, and all that the artist has to do is to indicate the parts of the drawing which are to be shaded by lightly ruling them across with blue chalk lines. Sometimes two different tones are required, which means the use of two screens, in which case a very light tone and a somewhat darker tone of the blue chalk mark the respective areas. The various gradations of mechanical screens have each an index number, and the number or numbers required must be quoted on the drawing. The numbers are given by the block-maker's screen chart. It is necessary to keep to such screens as are suitable for the quality of paper on which the reproduced drawing is to be

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printed. Coarse papers can only take very coarse screens. The maximum screen number which a newspaper or journal can take is usually quoted in their advertisements in the technical press, or may be had from the office of the journal concerned. It is important that the correct number be quoted.

The remarks about board made in the section on Wash apply-generally to line work also. Except for crayon work, smooth board, Bristol card, or a good hot-pressed paper will be found most useful. A flexible finely-pointed pen is best for line work; and if a brush is used for lining-in it should always be washed after use and kept only for Indian ink. In making corrections, small lines may be taken out with white paint when it is not desirable to erase with knife or rubber.


Colour line blocks cannot be made from the original drawing, and the artist has therefore to complete some additional processes besides making the finished drawing for the client. For example, in a two-colour job a line drawing of the main colour is made, and then a tracing of the second colour, and from these the two blocks are made; that is, one block for each colour employed.


There is little that may usefully be said about line and wash which has not already been said about the separate mediums. One thing the beginner should guard against is making the drawing simply a half-tone drawing with an outline round it. The more simple and contrasting the tones, the better the result. For drawings for newspaper reproduction the silhouette line may be very strong and clean, and detail lines suppressed. The ink used for the outline must, of course, be waterproof fixed ink, and it is a good plan to run water over the lined-in drawing before putting the washes on, as this prevents the wash running away from the ink line. Some artists prefer to wash in the pencil sketch and line it out afterwards,

a method which has the advantage of cleaning up the drawing where the wash has run over, or not quite filled the outline.

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